Approaches to change

The planned approach

The four-phase planned model was developed by Bullock and Batten (1985):

  1. Exploration phase
  2. Planning phase
  3. Action phase
  4. Integration phase

The emergent approach

The emergent approach is less prescriptive than the planned approach, and takes into account the dynamic and complex nature of organisations, focusing more on bottom-up changes.

There are five key areas that help or hinder the change process:

  1. Organisational structure
  2. Organisational culture
  3. Organisational learning
  4. Managerial behaviour
  5. Power and politics

(Source: B628, Managing and managing people).

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